This is fairly straightforward. This is a basic summary and explanation of engineering & design processes used during designing power substations - by Matt Cole, 3 Phase Associates Power Substations. Substations need a shield to protect itself from lightning strikes. Determine wire size (1/0AWG or #2 gauge or #6 gauge etc.) That’s it, you have read every single study that’s conducted when building a new substation. For the most part, electric power substations are viewed as the most integral part of a power utilities’ electric system, with electric systems being comprised of power generation, transmission, and distribution systems. Pulling more wires than what is possible will break below grade PVC conduits especially at the bends. Before the software can aid the substation design engineer, the electrical single line and ground grid for the substation will have to be designed and modeled within the software. The popular battery chemistry in the industry is lead-sulphuric acid. Substations need a shield to protect itself from lightning strikes. A lightning strike occasionally carries greater than 1 million-volts, 100 kilo-amps, and 20 giga-joules of energy. Substations can be of various capacities, voltages, configurations and types depending on what is the application for which the substation is being designed. Earthing and Bonding 3. A battery that not only packs enough energy but also provides the discharge characteristics to operate substation equipment is needed. Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. I thought about it but chose not to include it. In a thermal power plant i saw a substation of 220Kv and in the other one 132Kv. Install mesh grounding system as shown in Figure 9 to create an equipotential surface. – Conduit plan drawing In this article, I will share 18 substation design calculations or studies that will set you up to create a beautiful substation. one was producing 1050MW and other one was 800MW. In order to apply the NEC to substation design, Volume III, Conductors and Bus Design. electrical design calculations 1. substations in this unified approach are: Single-source responsibility Complete electrical and mechanical control over coordination of the three close-coupled sections Availability of all switchboard and switchgear types gives broad application flexibility Modern design … What does it take to design a masterpiece of a substation? CONTACT. – Station DC power oneline. I find collecting load information to be the most tedious part of the process. Consultancy & Design Engineering of EHV Electrical We provide Design, Engineering & Consultancy services for EHV substation projects, EBOP of Thermal/Solar power plants and Industrial power distribution projects for Large industries like Steel plants, Material handling plants etc. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Specify batteries with enough amp-hour capacity to support the continuous load for 8 hours and momentary load (such as breaker and switch operation) for a minute or more. All you need is your load information. 1 pa electrical technical documents. Eduardo has a background in protection & control, substation physical design and power system grounding. Design and electrical calculations for 110 (220)/35/10 kV power substation The main purpose of the equipment, which is used on substation, is to transform the voltage, protect the grid, and make all necessary switchings. Covers bare conductors, rigid and strain bus design. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Covers the general design considerations, documents and drawings related to designing a substation. Detailed Syllabus for Substation Design Course, Our Syllabus is Comprehensive,Structured and aim to build design career in EPC Companies,AEDEI Syllabus bases on the EPC Industries , All the Content and syllabus are realated to the industries, AEDEI is providing priactical projects on substration design The Contractor shall show in the design calculations that the fault currents and d.c. stray currents will not damage the structure. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: A well lit area serves this purpose. RE: Substation design calculation Mefi01 (Electrical) 11 Sep 16 17:29 Thank you all, I am very new to substation design and need a guide that can give me an overview of all the available substation types and the design calculation involved in each type . Because earthing is impacted by soil resistivity, in certain cases, the native soil needs to be replaced to get the desired results. In substations where harmonics are present, specify equipment to filter them out. 1.1 PURPOSE . When this surge is buried into the earth, it needs a path to dissipate. Specify the quantity of wires that can be pulled. The power grid is subjected to lightning strikes and temporary over-voltages. Volume I, Design Parameters. Eduardo has international experience in substation construction, O&M, and design in substations up to 500 kV. CTY TNHH XÂY LẮP ĐIỆN QUANG ANH. such that voltage developed at the receiving end is within equipment working limits. – Cable schedules Motors or coils that operate massive substation equipment require a. Your email address will not be published. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Electrical Substation Earthing / Grounding Complete Guide What is Earthing, Design Criteria ,Main Components, Required Calculations, Relevant IEEE,NEC Standards,Actual Earthing Rating: … Some form of protection is required to prevent them from going up in smoke. Components of a Substation (cbs, cts, isolators, insulation, transformers etc.) The parts of the substation to be checked for sufficient clearance by be chosen individually and flexibly. Scenario Calculations. Figure 4: Protective relays inside the control building. – General arrangement elevation or section view drawing, Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Otherwise, mitigate the noise using either sound walls or by specifying low-sound transformer. Thank you for your input. Specify auxiliary transformer capable of supplying the demand. MỤC LỤC NỘI DUNG BÀI VIẾT Electrical – Substation Design Calculations. Install mesh grounding system as shown in Figure 9 to create an equipotential surface. In other words, minimize widespread outage. Failure to do so renders it inoperable. – Specify protection and control logic for the substation equipment. The study furnishes momentary and interrupting fault current magnitudes along with impedance to the fault location (either in symmetrical components X1-X0 or X/R ratio). If the risk is acceptable then the coverage is reduced or not installed at all. Protection of modern substations is implemented using microprocessor relays. Electrical – Substation Design Calculations. Generally, power substations are used to control the power flow and supply quality in the grid. One factor affecting the choice of relay is arc-flash. However, I feel you are right, it should have been in the list. Structural steel is subjected to horizontal loads (line tensions, wind load, etc) and vertical loads (dead weight of equipment mounted on it, ice load, etc). Substation battery sizing calculations are very straightforward. The HVAC system, transformer fans, lights, cabinet heaters, lift-stations/sump pumps, battery charger, etc require AC power. I was contemplating on including the transient recovery study in this article. Drive ground rods into the earth (10′ or 20′ or 40′ as determined by the study) and tie the mesh to the rod – allowing the mesh to access low resistivity soil. Anyone walking in this area is subjected to an electric shock because of the potential difference developed between feet (with reference to Figure 8, one foot on red peak and the other on blue valley). – Substation lighting plan drawing, Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Also, specify extra high strength insulators where necessary. Cutting and filling the earth to create a flat property (in a mountainous area), creating the right slope to channel water away from substation, stormwater management, etc is an expensive affair. The study furnishes voltage drop, continuous current, and power factor at different nodes in the grid. The same concept applies to touch potential. – Ground grid plan drawing If 1-ohm is still in circulation on your documentation then this section applies to you.. Specify battery charger that is capable of charging the battery. Drive ground rods into the. And a power grid is a very big machine. Install firewalls. He has practiced engineering in the U.S., Canada and Costa Rica. Other design inputs … Skillset: Substation Design | Power System Studies | Arc Flash Study, Please support this blog by sharing the article, Major Substation Equipment - Learn the Purpose,…, Power Circuit Breaker - Operation and Control Scheme, Optical Ground Wire For Communication Between Power…, Power Transformer: Learn the Purpose, Cost, and Lead…, Substation Sub-Surface Engineering: An Overview of…, Electrical – Substation Design Calculations, AC system – auxiliary power transformer calculations, Civil / Structural – Substation Design Calculations, Geotechnical investigation and foundation calculations, Miscellaneous – Substation Design Calculations, Practical Implementation of Transformer Winding Connections – 3 Critical Steps to Consider, Cheatsheet for calculating lightning surge arrester ratings, Easily correct phase shift on a delta-to-wye transformer for paralleling, Major Substation Equipment – Learn the Purpose, Cost, and Lead Time to Procure, Wave Trap: Learn the Purpose, Cost, and Lead Time to Procure. Volume II, Physical Layout. Therefore a probability study is conducted to determine the likelihood of a lightning strike on the unprotected equipment. However, I decided against it because 18 seemed like a nice number to end the list at. Determine if the land is feasible for construction. Volume I, Design Parameters. A well lit area serves this purpose. This manual is intended as a guide for electrical engineers and designers (hereafter referred as the A/E) for the planning and design of the electrical power distribution and related systems – Conduit installation details drawing, ĐC: Lầu 2 Tòa Nhà I2 Building, Số 236/26 Điện Biên Phủ, Phường 17, Quận Bình Thạnh, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, Electrical – Substation Design Calculations, AC system – auxiliary power transformer calculations, “Energy saving is future generation investment”, Civil / Structural – Substation Design Calculations. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Electrical – Substation Design Calculations Protection and control analysis. The reinforcing steel in the foundations of buildings containing the primary electrical equipment may be used as auxiliary electrodes subject to the approval of the Engineer. Determine wire size (1/0AWG or #2 gauge or #6 gauge etc.) 1. Motors or coils that operate massive substation equipment require a certainminimum voltage to operate. Install a combination of lightning masts and shield wires that provides adequate lightning strike coverage. Design calculations may be made either manually or by SPU-approved computer programs. – Specify protection and control logic for the substation equipment. Specify steel structure capable of handling the horizontal and vertical loads. If you are choosing lower insulation level, pay close attention to the ratings of surge arrester and its install location. – Ground grid installation details drawing. ( electrical calculations ) the basic concept behind this booklet is to provide the simplest way to find out the electrical calculation. – Trip and isolate only the faulted zone. Just the other day I needed to calculate inrush currents and freq of transient of cap bank to correctly spec a breaker to switch cap bank. Non-linear loads (characterized by changing impedance as it draws power) injects harmonics into supply voltage and current. Quite a bit, honestly. Design calculations establish minimum guidelines and requirements for generating electrical calculations on projects. As seen in the video, a piece of substation bus is subjected to extreme forces generated by fault current. Here’s the list. Pulling more wires than what is possible will break below-grade PVC conduits especially at the bends. hs is the thickness of the surface material [m] A is the area occupied by the ground grid [m2] lT is the total buried length of conductor, including the earth rods [m] If no protective surface layer is used, then Cs =1 and ρs = ρ. Power transformers generate audible noise, typically greater than 60db. 4- Course Outline: Layout of Substation 5. Drop them below. A lightning strike on tall power transmission structures is inevitable. This paper will primarily focus on low-voltage, single phase designs (600V or less). And then there is also arc-flash rated switchgear and all the bells and whistles that come with it. It should be noted, creating 100% coverage is impossible. Syllabus Outline of Substation Design Course (Online and Offline) Preparation of Key SLD, PSLD for switchyards, Main ACDB & DCDB SLD Preparation of EHV HV Substation Design (Layouts For up to 400kv) Author credit: Sanity checks on the civil / structural section provided by Nauman Khan – Structural Engineer, PE. Tel: 028-6272-4787. Clearance Calculation in Air Insulated Substations: All the required minimum distances throughout the whole substation can now be automatically determined based on the 3D substation model processed by the Phase Checker. Figure 5: Several factors are considered when picking a relay. Recent technological develop ments have had a tremendous impact on all When load increases, the equilibrium shifts to a new high, with generators ramping up to keep up. Principle of Substation Layouts (spatial separation, maintenance zones) 7. – Station auxiliary AC power oneline. Not all loads in the station rely on DC power. Install a combination of handholes or manholes or cable troughs to make cable pulling easy. – Motors which operate high voltage switch and ones that charge the spring inside the circuit breaker. Volume II, Physical Layout. Substation security and safety of personnel is important. Even though the Earthing Calculations for determining a safe System Earth (Ground) has shifted away from an arbitrary resistance figure, usually <1 ohm. for different conductor specifications, in order to optimize the design of the substation. ... Other substations in the area influence the design of a new substation. The height and angle of LED head that provides the required foot-candles of light intensity are calculated. How much money is spent on building a new substation is largely influenced by the location. Introduction 2. This is a hazardous situation. Design services are integrated with analysis services, resulting in a complete engineered solution. Covers the general design considerations, documents and drawings related to designing a substation. This can be over-bearing. If this path is unavailable (due to high resistivity soil, for instance) the ground potential rises at the point of contact. Fireproof the control building, not just sidewalls but penetrations in the floor as well. Now requirements aside, every critical component in a machine needs redundancy. – General arrangement plan drawing Specify standard sound transformer if the noise generated is acceptable. Covers the layout considerations, bus configurations, and electrical clearances. Electrical substations form important nodal points in all power networks. Substation security and safety of personnel is important. Electrical calculations should be made for all SPU projects that include electrical components and should be filed in the project notebook. Any thoughts? 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